一项新研究发现，求职者开口说话几秒钟后，面试官就已经对他们的社会地位做出了判断Hopeful interviewees expect to be evaluated on their experience, conduct and ideas. But new research shows class bias in recruitment is based on just a few seconds of speech - and those first words can shape the way they are assessed in their competence and fitness for a job.求职者期待面试官根据自己的经验、表现和想法来评估自己究然而新研究显示，求职者开口说话才几秒钟，面试官就已经对他们形成了阶级偏见影那几句开场白甚至影响到了面试官对求职者能力及是否适合某个职位的评估
The findings demonstrate that people can accurately assess a stranger's socio-economic position, defined by their income, education, and occupation status, based on brief speech patterns.这项研究结果表明，人们可以基于简短的言语模式界定一个人的收入、教育和职业，从而准确判断一个陌生人的社会经济地位Hiring managers are influenced by these snap perceptions in ways that favor job applicants from higher social classes.这些第一印象会让人事经理更偏向于来自更高社会阶层的求职者Dr Michael Kraus, Assistant Professor at Yale School of Management in the US, said: 'Our study shows that even during the briefest interactions, a person's speech patterns shape the way people perceive them, including assessing their competence and fitness for a job.
美国耶鲁大学管理学院的助理教授迈克尔·克劳斯博士说：“我们的研究显示，即使是在最简短的互动中，一个人的言语模式也能决定别人对自己的看待方式，包括对他们的能力以及是否适合一份工作作出评估”'While most hiring managers would deny that a job candidate's social class matters, in reality, the socio-economic position of an applicant or their parents is being assessed within the first seconds they speak - a circumstance that limits economic mobility and perpetuates inequality.'“尽管多数人事经理都会否认求职者的社会阶层会影响面试结果，但事实上，在求职者开口说话的前几秒钟，面试官就已经对求职者或其父母的社会经济地位作出了评估，这种情况会限制经济流动性，让不平等持续下去”The researchers based their findings on five separate studies.
这项研究结果基于五项独立研究The first four examined the extent that people accurately perceive social class based on a few seconds of speech.前四项研究考察了人们基于几秒钟的言语来判断社会阶层的准确程度Researchers found that reciting seven random words is sufficient to allow people to discern the speaker's social class with above-chance accuracy.研究人员发现，背诵七个随机单词足以让人们辨别出说话者的社会阶层，准确率高于随机猜测水平
The researchers also showed that pronunciation cues in an individual's speech communicate their social status more accurately than the content of their speech.研究人员还指出，根据一个人的发音来判断社会地位比根据说话内容更准确The fifth study examined how these speech cues influence hiring, based on 20 prospective job candidates from varied socioeconomic backgrounds who were recruited to interview for an entry-level lab manager position at Yale.第五项研究基于20名求职者的面试来考察言语信号是如何影响招聘的聘这些求职者拥有不同的社会经济背景，他们都是应聘耶鲁大学一个入门级实验室经理的职位